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Profitability Case Study Interview Example — Solved by Ex-McKinsey Consultant

did you ever wonder how a real consultant would do in a real case interview that’s what you’re gonna see today I’m Giulio a next bein consultant and today in this video I’m gonna interview Bruno an expert Kinsey consultant I’m gonna use a case that is very similar to what I got in the last interview with my final round at Bain and at first glance is just a simple profitability case where the interviewer just wants to see if you can build and analytically work with a profit tree but in reality it’s not I’ve used this case for coaching hundreds of times and I’m confident to say only probably three out of ten candidates can actually do an offer deserving performance at their first try but enough chitchat already let’s get to the case and see how Bruna deals with it so your client is a auto biomanufacturing the United States ok and they are faced with in the last five years a profitability decrease their profitability has decreased from five to 2.5% well the competitors average rules from three point five percent to more than that nowadays yeah so we’re at two point five and competitors are above three point five okay you’ve been hired to help them restore their profitability over the next two years or so okay how would you help them do that okay great question so couple clarifying questions first did our competitors profitability as decreased as well our competitors profitability has increased has increased to three point five from three point five to something that we don’t know okay so they used to be a three point five lower than us because we were at five yeah and they have increased their profitability while we have decreased that’s right okay that’s interesting it doesn’t seem like it’s an industry-wide problem right another question are we a regular auto manufacturer is this global a real luxury cars or just mass market we have all kinds of cars okay the brands within our manufacturer we do sell only in the United States okay so we’re just in the united that sounds good so the first step that i would do to solve this problem is to find out if this is a revenue problem or a cost problem and if we have data on that we’d like to get that now just so I can focus on the right branch or I can develop my issue tree matter whichever you prefer okay we do have data on that so our revenues have increased from 21 billion to twenty two point five billion dollars twenty to twenty five okay while our costs have increased from twenty billion dollars to twenty two billion dollars okay so it does seem like a cost problem just to confirm that it is a cost problem how’s our pricing our average price per car doing and I’m asking this because it could be that our revenues have increased because we have dropped prices increased volume sold and this raising cost is just to reflect the increase in cost to make more cars okay that makes sense our price has stayed the same from $30,000 to $30,000 per average when I mix of products changed because maybe the average is the same but we’re selling more sports cars for a lower price and yeah this question so not really no okay the mix hasn’t changed okay so we don’t have a pricing problem which means that we don’t have a revenue problem that’s right so we need to explore costs better and what I do now is to understand the cost structure of this company and get a cost breakdown to see which cost has increased okay and I see here there are direct costs and there are indirect costs I believe this is how most manufacturers would categorize those costs we think the direct cost are fixed and variable costs I believe all indirect costs are fixed and yeah I’d like to know the cost breakdown so within variable that would there would be parts there would be energy there’d be label for manufacturing and perhaps yeah sales would be indirect and then within fixed costs there is the factory right is there a new direct cluster and me see okay well that’s pretty close but we do have a cost breakdown that our client use okay so you can use the face yeah that’s okay we can go with materials costs okay so labor costs factory related costs okay and other costs for the indirect costs okay great so no energy yeah okay sounds good and what what happened to this costs okay so material costs have gone from 50% of total costs to 52% of total costs okay labor costs has stayed stable state has stay stable and twenty percent twenty before and 20 percent afterwards right and of course the total has increased because total plus CSS right and both factory costs and indirect costs have decreased from 15 each to 14 each ok so it went from 15% of 4% okay that sounds good so just to get a it seems like the problems on materials okay I just want to tie back to the two billion plus increase just to see how much of that was caused by material so before I had fifty percent of twenty billion so we had ten billion dollars yeah and now we have 52 percent of twenty two didn’t so if this were fifty percent of twenty two would be eleven billion dollars yeah now I have two percent of twenty — which is 0.4 t four billion right so 1% would have been points 22 billion so yes point forty four so now material costs is at 11.40 four billion right so we have increased two billion total costs and we have increased one point forty four billion so that’s a 75% mature costs represent roughly 75% of the total cost increase okay so I’m gonna focus on materials because it represents most of the costs increase because it’s the line that has gained the cost line that has gained most share and then if you can’t solve the cost problem in the profitability problem through material costs we’re gonna come back and work on labor indirect and fixed alright to make sense okay what do you want to do so I wanna investigate why material costs have increased and what do you think that’s a good question so let’s think of the possibilities here why has material costs increased one clarifying question that I’d like to ask is do we know if our competitors material costs have increased as well we don’t really know that no okay because that would be really informative information to have because they probably buy the same parts from the same supplier so what I would do here is break down materials into the different types of materials so we have steel we have outer parts we have tires glasses like electrics all this stuff we buy and I would try to understand which one has increased and then I’d ask why again so say if steel are we purchasing different types of C or from different suppliers or what’s going on but the first step would be to understand which category of purchased parts is increased okay alright we do have data on that actually so our materials are broken down into auto parts steel plastics and others okay so you were your vehicles yeah and as a percentage of materials Auto Parts has increased from 60% to 65% as a percentage of materials yeah so we’re talking about a eleven point forty four billion yeah okay auto parts went from 60 to 65% that’s right okay steel and plastics both decrease from 15 to 13 percent okay and other costs has decreased from 10 percent to 9 percent okay that’s interesting so it seems like it all comes from auto parts we can’t know for sure unless we do the math so I’m gonna do the math really quickly we had sixty percent of 10 billion we used to purchase six billion in auto parts and now we’re purchasing 65% of 11.40 for doing okay tough math to do here so let me divide this into fifty percent plus ten percent plus five percent 50 percent of 11.40 for is well 50 percent of point four four is points 22 and fifty percent of 11 is five point five so five point five plus points 22 is 5.72 that’s 50% of the total bill that’s right then 10 percent is point 14 or 144 I’m just gonna let’s do the exact math here okay and then five percent is ten percent of the fifty percent so it’s zero point five seven two so so me all up we have six 2 plus 4 is 6 plus 7 is 13 7.36 wait wait wait wait pause did you see that 65 percent of eleven point forty four billion is seven point four thirty six not seven point 36 brooder been a mistake there and i didn’t notice the vendors are so close that I didn’t catch my attention they both rounded 27.4 and I actually only noticed this when I was editing this video in a real case interview it’s actually possible that the interviewer doesn’t notice a mistake but it’s not likely and what would have happened if I had noticed it I’d have asked him are you sure and that he would have one chance of finding a fixing him to his mistake if he did he’d be fine no big deal if he didn’t that he’d be trouble is that right yeah that’s right okay so we went from six billion to seven points 36 which is an increase of one point 36 one point 36 billion so not all costs from materials increased come from auto parts but the vast majority of it we’ll compare one point 36 billion to one point forty four billion total material increase so let’s focus on auto parts we need to understand why outer part costs that’s gonna do we have any information on what happens to our suppliers the types of parts we buy or something in supply chain not at all what do you think okay so let’s raise some hypothesis on what could have happened you either will buy more parts and some extent would have to buy more parts per car because the materials cost has raised more than the total revenue right so that’s why we’re having profitability problem or we’ll pay more per part on average do we know which one of those who is the most responsible we don’t know what I’d like to see how about this is both okay so cool so if we’re purchasing more parts per car maybe our mix of parts has changed or we have new products which is another source of mix changing but then it’s we caused it instead of the orchids or the waste is hired in our manufacturing chain right now if the dollar per part has increased so if we’re paying more per part that’s either because we have switched to more expensive suppliers or that happened at same suppliers and if it did happens in the same suppliers then either they’re making more money so their margins up or their costs are up and they’re sending their costs to us okay why would I be making more money perhaps because I’ll give you some ideas within here maybe they have bought one another and now they’re more concentrated and we can really bargain with them or they have created switching costs so we can’t change suppliers maybe the tooling of the equipment or they have patents of certain parts designs it could also be that we are getting really poor in negotiation so maybe we’ve changed our purchasing force or our CP oh and our guys are not doing a really good job negotiating these spots okay all right I can believe that okay now as it turns out the problem is that workers of auto parts manufacturers in the USA have become recently unionized okay and this has caused a large increase in labor costs with salaries and benefits increase for our suppliers for all USA manufactures our suppliers okay no just our suppliers but all suppliers of auto parts in the USA okay so this happened to our competitors as well it did but other players in the market have all forced the production of their auto parts to other countries okay and we’re currently considering outsourcing the production of our auto parts to China okay what factors would you take into consideration to decide whether or not this is a good idea okay so just see if I understand our materials bill has increased because our suppliers have higher costs this happened with all suppliers in the chain in the u.s. yeah and we’re going to consider it who should buy these parts in China are we considering buying all the parts or just some of them as many as needed to bring our profitability back to find myself okay and you need to make sure that it’s you want to know how would I decide how would I have declined the size if we should purchase these parts in China all right okay sounds good can can I take a minute to think yeah take your time okay so I would 2:05 different factors to see if we should outsource or actually import parts from China instead of buying them from American suppliers the first one is if it’s actually going to be cheaper if it’s not going to be cheaper in China for some reason I don’t want to do that yeah the second one is if it meets the quality standards that we expect okay because otherwise we’re gonna lose the quality of our product and this is probably not acceptable yeah the third thing is can we have a predictable supply chain if we bring parts from China all right it doesn’t make sense to get cheaper products but then have manufacturing more expensive or having the factory stop working and so on yeah the fourth factor I’d look at are other risks that are not considered in the previous three buckets and finally if there aren’t better alternatives because maybe all of this box is checked for China but then there are better alternatives so let me explore in a bit more detail regarding Cheaper are the parts going to be cheaper the way I’d answer this question would be to answer three questions the first is figure out the cost of the parts there okay in China the second step would be to consider what are the fixed costs in developing new suppliers so it will cost something to have them make the parts and learn to make our parts at our quality standards and the third thing is what is the cost to bring parts from China to the US and then there’s all the shipping parts the tariffs the exchange rates and okay okay also there’s a fourth factor which we didn’t put here but we will probably need some operation there some people checking suppliers and visiting them as well okay regarding quality I would try to understand what is the manufacturing expertise of these suppliers what are the quality controls that they do it can be trust them and then also I’d like to see prototypes of our parts just to see if this actually happens in real life or if it’s all theoretical on paper they’re really good but you know yeah okay regarding the predictable supply chain to look at three factors it as well the first is the import issue how is the process to import parts from China how predictable is it how much leads time do you need to order these parts and can we work with these types of lead times okay so assuming the supply chain is predictable what are the steps and the times of the process the second factor is geopolitics are there geopolitical risks that can make us you know not receive parts for a whole month and then what should we do about it okay yeah the dividuals closed down the business and the third thing is something that would decrease the risk in supply chain which is inventory how much should we raise inventory how much can we raise inventory to mitigate these risks and this uncertainties and if so how much is it gonna cost and again this brings us back to the cheaper points up there okay okay now some other risks to consider one of them is intellectual property can we trust our blueprints to these Chinese suppliers I know some of them have had trouble and other industries in the past are we willing to risk our designs with them and if so which designs okay and this enters a broader picture which is probably the next step of this analysis if we choose to send our parts of China which parts probably not all of them you have to make sense but that’s our next step the second risk that I would emphasize here is the media or the public perception we’re going to be responsible for you know taking drops out of America having some suppliers bankrupt we use Chinese parts in our cars is it possible that we will lose market share doing this I know our competitors are doing but maybe we’re gaining some some sales because we’re you guys who you know trust American suppliers and give Americans jobs and so on we need to try to size the impact of that and the third class of risks that I’d look at here is the operational risk so and this includes supply chain demand all the other things but is it possible that we cannot get parts in a certain situation because of language barriers is it possible that a certain event causes the port’s not to work well so all the predictable things that we we had looked at in the quality in these five key factors what if they become unpredictable these are risks okay okay and finally I’d look at alternatives so we can develop American suppliers to make them cheaper again maybe renegotiate with the Union because if they have if they have cost our our parts to be too expensive to the US it doesn’t really matter that they have higher sellers if through then they get fired and yeah or make them cheaper in other ways maybe integrate the supply chain better teach them how to be more efficient as well another alternative is other countries their Southeast Asia there’s Mexico there’s a ton of other countries that could be viable and perhaps even cheaper than China or with less risks and then the other one is are there certain parts that we can internalize and manufacture them within our company so this could make them cheaper more predictable and they try to evaluate these alternatives just to see if there’s any one of them that’s better than China okay all right that’s it that was pretty good okay I’m not gonna asking for a recommendation here because I didn’t give you any any datum of any kind yes so you can’t really say anything but they feel really liked your analysis I guess that I think you did too preservation he might come back to with some to him with some data in the future wait for it okay sounds good do you think it did a good job in this case yeah he did what do you think it did best what do you think I could have done better okay so definitely the best point in your analysis were that you in the second question you raised some really good points and what you would consider the second question was why materials increased yeah I’m gonna go the third question then why what we should consider when outsourcing your bike to China when deciding whether we should or not although some really good ideas here were developing new suppliers would be would have fixed costs in China and that’s something that very few people would think of another month was predictability of the supply chain yeah and even so that was a good idea in itself and having that impact inventories was something that hardly anyone would think of okay don’t worry those are real good points and one thing that I wished you did and it helps that I do the project out of manufacturing probably yeah guys don’t expect everyone to think of all these issues yeah but at the same time you can always learn from this and it won’t work all for our Pro stability cases regarding automobile companies Bennett you can always know from now on that predictability in the supply chain allows you to have lower inventories and unpredictable and unpredictable supplied supply chain will not have you have higher venturi yeah that’s something you can know for all cases and it works for all other issues yeah any manufacturer even McDonald’s right yeah the App Inventor ease of burgers and Brad’s and so on yeah and still like for all other issues so we’re talking let’s see you have financial costs because you’re out for a C to another country your problem that probably means that you either have [Music] risks that currency risk so your currencies gotta go up or down and that might change your costs or you’re gonna have hedging costs to prevent that right anyway you’re gonna have that in any case where you’re doing something in one country and another yeah regardless of whether you’re outsourcing your production or you’re starting to arrange my name when when its re-entry yeah that’s right and one thing I wish to different was in the beginning of the case I asked you to help me solve the client’s problem and you went straight into and usually what’s happening yeah you know I wish to unset oh so I messed up yeah yeah well that’s okay like that’s what most people do and it’s not the end of the world but I would have been much happier to have you do it differently and say well so the first thing I want to do is figure out what their problem is but then afterwards I want to come up with options of course it depends on what the problem is but of course if I can’t solve this specific problem I’m going to come up with solutions and all other ends of my profitability tree yeah something like that yeah so I’m gonna do it right now so you’re gonna help increasing improving the profitability step number one is to find the root cause of what’s causing this profitability decrease so if it’s a cost problem which cost is right probably it’s a revenue problem is it price or volume and in which product line or rich region is causing the problem yeah step two is to find solutions to that root cause and if we can’t find any solutions to that root cause what other drivers can we work on to improve the profitability problem and then in step three would be to try to quantify each solution and see how much it will help solve the profit problem and also think from a more qualitative strategic level if the solution makes sense around because maybe it has a really high profit potential but it’s not gonna work in real life well that’s that’s how I should have done the first question of this case and then we went on to the issue in our channel there is a video we’re gonna talk specifically about this issue he’ll talk about what should have been done how to do it differently and why it’s better it’s called the five tactics to stand out in profitability case interviews and it should be right here on the right hand top corner of your video if you’re like most candidates out there you found the Diagnostics part of this case not so hard but the last question the hardest one we know that and we found that way too and we were preparing that’s why we built a free course on the case interview fundamentals where we teach you how to answer any type of question an interviewer can ask you regardless of case type of Industry anything and we want you to do that without memorizing frameworks we want you to learn to think like a consultant because that’s what really impresses interviewers and brings home offers chasing different fundamentals has been helping hundreds of candidates get there and VB offers so I don’t want you to be the one to miss out on that if you’re interested just go to Crafton KSS comm slash free course and sign up right now if you want to watch other videos about case interview case interview examples how to stand out how to think like a consultant to subscribe to our channel hit the bell button to get notified when we release new ones and finally if you like this video you’re they also gonna like the other one that’s on your screen where I interview Bruno with a McKinsey style case a tougher one harder than this one that you could probably find in a first or final round in McKinsey Boehner BCG okay I hope you liked this one and I’ll see you in the next video

What do research proposals look like?

what it usually looks like is about about two to three pages of people’s I was saying I’m interested in the concept or I’ve become interested in what Graham’s she and Democratic communication is just drawing them 3:31 since I’m you were in that course but I haven’t read into Graham Chi and I don’t really know enough about it yet so I’m interested in doing a really big piece of research on that or it might be I’m really interested in understanding how the Woodward’s project is working with the dads honey site Women’s Center some people have done that kind of work and they go they do interviews or someone another research proposal was I really interested in how the media covered the the STV vote in the last provincial election and I’m going to both do a discourse analysis to look at some of the media coverage and I’m going to go and interview some of the people involved so we should you don’t have to but you have to have an idea of what your topic is and whether it’s going to be textual research or text or based or human subject based because if you’re going to be interested in human subject basis you want to interview people you know or do some kind of a you know participant observation or something like that you have to get ethics approval and usually the ethics approval it’s not onerous but it’s very time-consuming you often do you start the process at the beginning of your first five credit semester you don’t usually get the approval to the end of the semester right so you really have to have an idea of it so that you can start to get your ethics approval and then if and then by the time you get your ethics approval you’ve done your first you’ve done your first literature review on the topic and then you have the approval to go into the interviews if you’re just going to do a phenomenology or discourse analysis you don’t need to get ethics approval so you have to have enough of a sense of what you want to do so that you don’t set yourself up for you know timing problems later now having said that you know you can talk to who people you know supervisors or myself you know people that you’ve worked with their professors write about you know what’s possible you know would it make sense to do this how my day approached this and they they might come up with ideas you like

How to Give an Awesome (PowerPoint) Presentation (Whiteboard Animation Explainer Video).

around the world every day thousands if not millions of people give presentations some are great and have a powerful impact on their audiences others well let’s just say their works in progress this is powerful presentations simply stated meet Jim an aspiring professional trying to make it in the world Jim used to give presentations like just about everyone else he knew PowerPoint was his tool of choice he’d use it like an outline with a header followed by bullet after bullet and sometimes even sub bullets when he wanted to be fancy he’d add what usually turned out to be an ineffective chart or sometimes a table and when Jim wanted to really spice things up he’d add yep clipart unfortunately Jim’s approach would often confuse and bore people this was a problem because he had important things to say and because it was dimming his prospects for success fortunately Jim learned a better way and didn’t stay in the dark for long perhaps most importantly he now focuses on the story he wants to tell in doing so he tries to follow a simple structure with a clear beginning middle and end that links together as various points and Bill’s to his conclusion when formulating his story Jim uses a simple pad of paper or sticky notes staying low-tech at this stage huh some think more creatively and stay outside the box he then considers what will best help him tell his story Jim sometimes ops 2 — whiteboard flip charts handouts or even no props at all when it makes sense for him to use PowerPoint he tries to remember the adage that sometimes less is more he doesn’t dumb down his presentations but he does try to limit each slide to one key idea or depending on the content he sometimes builds an idea incrementally so it’s easy to follow he always looks for visual ways to tell his story is supporting images minimal text and clear charts and graphs sometimes he uses quotes but he tries to remember that people can’t read his slides and truly listen at the same time Jim still uses plenty of text to help him remember what he wants to say but he hides it in his notes that only he sees Jim’s new approach takes more time energy and rehearsal it’s been well worth the effort those audiences are now much more engaged and better understand to remember his presentations and as if that weren’t enough his pocketbook doesn’t mind either this has been powerful presentation simply stated [Music]

SAT prep — SAT Essay Structure — Chegg Test Prep

SAT prep — SAT Essay Structure — Chegg Test Prep

[Applause] think of the SAT essay as a well organized closet just like most things in life it needs structure it may take a while to arrange but once you have a system down everything makes sense let’s go over how a good essay should be organized it’s important for you to begin with an introductory paragraph this paragraph should be from two to three sentences long it should also clearly state your thesis by indicating how you will answer the prompt and introduce examples that you’re going to use remember that the graders will be reading hundreds of thousands of these essays so the introductory paragraph is crucial for drawing your reader in next comes the body of the essay try to write a body paragraph for each example you have be structured and succinct write three examples which means three body paragraphs putting your best example first followed by your second best example and then your third and remember to save time and space to write a conclusion remember each body paragraphs should begin with a topic sentence a topic sentence is a sentence that introduces your point and your example it will be the focus of your paragraph it lets the reader know what you’re going to discuss so follow it up with six to seven sentences about it finally try to end each paragraph with a concluding sentence before you move on to your next example and body paragraph a concluding sentence is the last sentence of the paragraph it concludes the paragraph and what the main idea is when you move on to your next body paragraph use transitional words or transitional phrases think of transitional words and phrases as the links from paragraph to paragraph they help tie the logical relationships between your ideas and set the foundation of your tone for the next paragraph here are some examples of transition words however to indicate contrast therefore to indicate a result furthermore to indicate the extension of an argument 1st 2nd or 3rd to indicate a sequence of examples or reasons and nevertheless to indicate irony after you’ve developed and express your ideas as fully as possible it’s time to move on to your conclusion your conclusion should be in a separate paragraph and it can be about three to five sentences long and ended you should rephrase your thesis refer to your examples and add a closing thought here’s a protip for you if you’re in the middle of a body paragraph and you’re Proctor suddenly announces that there are only five minutes left finish your sentence move ahead and write your conclusion because you will probably lose points if your essay lacks a conclusion and that’s it the structure of a good essay like that closet all it takes is some clear organization and practice unfortunately there’s no shortcut to this you’ve just got to write more read more and then write some more but I have faith in you you can do this [Applause] [Music]

How to make your essay TASTY: Revising and Editing the essay

How to make your essay TASTY: Revising and Editing the essay

good day ladies and gentlemen you might wonder why we are up here we also is you have to learn how to edit and revise your essay I know what you are thinking about steps tatooine to us while ordering and waiting for food let’s see how editing and writing an essay are different and why it is so important we want it is your affair so let’s go on we’ve got our order here we will start with revising to look at it we got a stake here I think that revising and editing the essay is by making the stake here so firstly revising the sky the overall surface of this state they should know plans will organize and decide in the place here take a statement the right style well is it easy to ey — si only you have a transfer add in some other context what is need like USA America might not have a thesis statement so at 1 then our staff or you move very to remove irrelevant staying in USA such as unfamiliar words nonsense and extra information even you’re working sentence and then style for me it mean two more sentences and faith that has a mistake I know you F is substitute for example your choice meaning this attitude where those are our youth and boiling okay there has been too much informations but let move on the editing part that everything here is similar with ingredient of making a steak has been only contract would not be enough you should focus on a detail to make yourself healthier same for arms they did hang this top the first letter cup C stand for capitalizations the your capitalization is name is Jairo and money are the basic thing that we have to be careful with capitalization error then the second cup you is you is the unit refer to the mesh of now than work for example it should be she writes a dot not she like adult the first topic please this type of punctuation of course is in the night has name of colon comma semicolon for soft and so on follow me the last property s selling faster since remodeling your computer and typing the essay right now there have to be more careful than before because it can’t edit yourself it can go along and yes the street have started the time necessary become super useful delicious so this actually that after writing USA you should take a break ah speak of it we hope you guys will get used to the information that you said yourself then please come back I mean why and edit your afraid so trine between by reading aloud and if you are the audience of your work and also here looking for accomplished hence listed last but not least is a good way to do a peer reviewing and conferencing with ta are your lecturer to produce koi silent grade F way and here you are the best meal ever

Scholarship Essay — Chill Spot on CNA-TV

Scholarship Essay — Chill Spot on CNA-TV

[Music] hey welcome to the chill spot I’m Corinne and I’m lissandra and today we’re going to be talking to you about the essay it is a great way to come to see na fest you know with all these sponsorships that we’ve been having we are able to send more CNAs to see na —this but the only problem is if you guys do not go to naka see na org and you scroll down until you find DNA fest and then you’ll hit on the scholarship essay we’re not going to be able to send you to see na fest and that’s gonna be a shame yeah it is a great way to go Drake and I both were actually winners of this so again you want to go to naka cna org you’re going to scroll down until you see see na fest and then right over to the scholarship essay question yeah and by 2026 7.8 million direct caregivers will be required to meet the needs of an Asian America please tell us in what ways can we retain and recruit quality CNAs I think that’s a good question it does need to be 300 to 500 words and the due date is due by June the 24th so you still have plenty enough time to grab that piece of paper grab an envelope grab a marker crayon whatever you choose to write with and it’s simple it’s easy its pain-free and it’s a great way to get to see na fest the other deadlines that we need to talk about is actually will be coming up it’s Monday July the 29th and it is the key to the quality Awards and they must be received by July the 24th so please don’t miss out the opportunity to come to see na fest write your essay and don’t miss out on a great opportunity to recognize yourself are one of your coworkers you were a winner in Washington DCS yeah so that that was a honor for us to write that nomination for you and I’m glad that you you were chosen so who knows you may have another one floating around this year she was kind of stressed out last year because most facilities do tell their CNAs that they won and it it’s a good thing but it’s also kind of a bad thing because you’re sitting there at the table you just get done eating dinner and your eyes aidid level is way up there but it’s it’s a neat feeling to hear your name being called and you’re not prepared for snow so it really makes you get emotional and everything I know you had those flowers and you were gonna throw those flowers out at us because we kept it from you yes but please work hard on both of these things this is it’s a good thing and I hope everyone had a great cna week until you come back and join us again on the chill spot remember you matter [Music]

Turbo charge your thesis: reading, note-taking and writing

hi everyone I’m Nick awkward if you haven’t come across people I’m a senior lecturer at UTSA this video you might be being asked to watch it because you’re going to be working with me in a workshop called turbocharged your thesis or turbocharged or thesis writing or something like that in which case this is a video that helps you prepare for that workshop but we’ll spend a busy day doing a lot of activities that give you a chance to put some of the things I’m going to talk about actually into practice and to try them out in a risk-free low stakes environment now you might just come across this video through Twitter or a blog or through links on YouTube in which case I hope it’s useful to you and I guess the point is it would then be up to you to think about creating the conditions and what to make in which it makes sense to try some of these things out the idea of turbocharged is not about cheating or shortcuts or compromising on the quality of research on the writing and the reading that you do just to be quicker but I was inspired to do this workshop or prompted to do it because I realized that over time I’d learned a lot of strategies and I attended like a workshops here at the UTS library and I realized there were more I could have learnt and I’ve been trying them out which enable you to be more strategic and purposeful in the way you read write notes and write and they can be empowering and exciting and help you build confidence and they can save you lots and lots of time and I’ve been very vocal in stuff for a lot of people particularly doctoral students and masters by research students the default can be actually what’s quite a time consuming on strategic and inefficient way of reading and writing and you might feel bad for doing some of the things that I’m saying and you might disagree that’s that’s fine that’s normal but what I am trying to do is to suggest that it’s not just about trying to do things quicker but a try it’s trying to do things smarter and one of the outcomes are doing things smarter is that you often will actually end up doing them quicker I’ve got some notes here to just carol to help you get the lock there are three areas are going to cover number one read how you approach read how fast can you read how much should you read do you have to read everything everybody writes to note-taking what do you write or anything when you’re reading and three writing and preparing for writing or warm-up writing and this is not about how to do good writing or the content of phrasing and structure and things like that this is about reading note-taking and writing so firstly reading you might assume that we take an article and we read it from start to finish or a book or a chapter in your book or policy document or something else I would say for me now that’s rarely the case obviously for some things I know they’re important I’m going to read at the beginning and I’m going to read every word in detail to the end that’s fine Oh some things I may read two or three times I might read them very very slowly and I might go back and read them again and try and understand them when it’s relevant spending a lot of time reading something that’s really important or difficult is absolutely sensible and then break the right thing to do but that’s not always going to be the best approach that’s not always going to what you need to do that’s not always going to be what’s the most relevant to do so I’m going to talk through a few things that I’ve learned from the UTS library and over my own experience and talking to colleagues things that can help you maybe think differently about reading one of them is previewing so maybe you have got like I do a big tall pile of articles that you think you should read that people have sent you what you’ve found through online or you’ve got them from the library or you set in the library and you’re looking at a shelf a big giant list of journals previewing is really about a form of reading that helps you make a decision about what kind of reading to do next if any so you can look at titles section headings captions under figures or photographs you can even look at the references so it might be that something looks by the title to be relevant to your field but you look at the way the headings work and you look through the references now actually this is not a kind of study that’s of the kind that’s relevant to me actually in the field I’m talking about although it looked relevant it may not be so this is about getting a sense of the content of something and may looking a more informed decision about whether you think it’s worth reading on that may also be a precursor to which sections you may want to read skimming is not cheating skimming is about looking through a text to try and find its main ideas before you make a judgement to spend an hour or two hours reading a paper you can skim it it’s often normally three or four times faster than actual reading and some people can skim it much more than that it doesn’t mean you’re trying to avoid the content it’s actually about finding what the key ideas are so you’re reading through you can have a lot of material ahead of you and you’re trying to distill out what the key ideas are it’s not reading at this point the thorough understanding it’s reading for the key ideas and it may be but that’s enough to say okay those are ideas I’m familiar with these are authors I’m familiar with this is a study I’m familiar with that has other publications and I want to get a sense of how this particular paper is different from other things that have been written so you might use skimming to see if an article of interest is actually worth reading more so after a bit of previewing skimming could be there as a way of doing it skimming is not about cheating or missing things out it’s about looking for key my key ideas now scanning is kind of like a more purposive version of skimming scanning is a technique to locate specific things relevant information so it might be that you’re looking at something because you using a theory that you’re working with or a methodology you’re interested in or is something which you know is kind of some findings that you really need to get your head around so scanning is a very purpose if I don’t need to take everything that’s in this paper I need to look just at this it may be something where you expect the literature review will be Rajee familiar to you and so you can scan for other things you may be scanning for how did these people do their analysis it may be that you’re coming back to a paper you’ve read before from start to finish and now you’ve got a new purpose I have heaps of notes on my wall here where I’ve read papers two or three times the first paid time I might have just previewed it or skimmed then I might have read it in depth and now I’m coming back and I’m scanning because I’ve got a new purpose what do I want to look for this time ah I wanted to know how they did their observation or what they did with their interviews or quite remember something what am I going for — scanning purposive it’s on your terms you don’t have to read things on the terms of which the people wrote them you’re reading for your purposes now that there can be what you call reading analytically this focus is on a whole text structure or categories or hierarchies of information reading analytically is about how is something organized now it can be really useful to you if for example you’re at the stage of writing a paper yourself or writing your thesis and you say I just can’t get this flow or I can’t get the right structure or I’m not quite sure what order to do things or what’s a priority for me if you read some things analytically they could be texted you know really well already there could be new ones to you you can be you’re not looking for the word-for-word content you’re looking for how did this person organize their ideas why does certain things come before others that could be looking at subheadings or themes if there is an analysis where it says you know we had three themes it could be if this person has written their paper well looking at the first sentence of each paragraph and thinking how did they go from one to the other what was the order in which ideas were introduced often the first sentence of a paragraph will be a key to what the whole paragraph contains so that organizational level you may not need to read the whole thing you can just be reading analytically for certain things you might be thinking about two ideas that you know you’re really interested in and how they relate to each other I should mention actually the many of these ideas and the notes I’m referring to came from a workshop I attended here at the Graduate research school a UTS run by Terry Royce on thanking him and acknowledging from this resource it’s been able in me to put into words and into an organized form something out of a struggle to do by myself the next thing on this is then close reading now of course this is what many others do by default and I’m not saying that all readings should be quick reading or cheap reading but when we do close reading what I’m saying is we should be doing it for the right reasons not just because we read everything equally closely and we have to think okay I’m deciding to read this closely now what is the closeness that I want am I looking for how this person crafts their words because this is one of the most beautifully expressive writers I’ve come across am I looking for the intricacies of theory is it everything about their discussion and their findings that I’m really interested in or when we’re really trying to hone in on their lit review either because I want to know what they’ve been reading and what’s known in my area or because I want to use this to learn how to write my own lick with you so even close reading doesn’t have to apply to a whole text you can of course read a whole text very closely and even if you read the whole text closely doesn’t mean you necessarily start at the beginning there are all sorts of things to do with reading and reading differently that you may be able to add or try out and this is not an exhaustive list just what I’m putting out there is the idea that you don’t have to read everything the same way and in fact it doesn’t make sense to do so if you start everything by making lots and lots of reading slowly making lots of notes I doubt that’s going to be serving you well you’ve got to think about what kind of reading is going to serve me well here there’s nothing dishonest or disingenuous about skimming some things scanning others reading abstracts and titles for the studies are the closest to yours you’re going to want to know them in very much depth there might be some studies that aren’t really that closely related to your own work but you just have to know they’re there in which case there’s nothing wrong perhaps with just reading the abstract if you’re not going to be citing it in-depth you just need to know these people did this and this is what they found fine I may be making a big mistake here by revealing this and making this public but I’ll tell you I do that all the time I read a lot of things very closely and I use many of these other approaches when I think it makes sense to me of course you could always go back later and read closely you don’t necessarily skim first and read closely later you might be closely then come back and scan with the purpose now I’m going to talk a bit about note-taking now I used to be I think one of the world’s worst note takers I remember when I was studying in school the book in French and I used to get pens and I had red black and blue and underlined the words and once the teacher forgotten her book and so I said oh you can borrow mine I’ll share with somebody and she looked at my book I said Nick every sentence in the whole chapter of this book is underlined what are you doing and she was right not underlining meant nothing apart from it made the book harder to read I’ve got articles where I’ve highlighted well over fifty percent of the text using my little highlight I’ve got notes here on myself I can show you where I was typing up notes as I was reading more afterwards and they were almost as long as the paper in itself what a waste of time so I’m going to talk about a number of things firstly I’m going to think about if you’re highlighting things or underlining things by hand or making notes in the margins marginal notes I think are really interesting actually but highlighting underlining why are you doing that and how much are you doing it how much the more you’re highlighting the less discerning you are being when you’re highlighting something if you think about it if you’re highlighting 10% of an article it means something’s got to be really quite important before it gets highlighted 50% when half the things are getting in and half the things are about highlighting isn’t telling you much about what’s important so highlighting and underlining and typing up as you go along of course they have a role but you’ve got to be in control of them and make them a discerning what justifies you highlighting something what justifies you making some notes here are some alternatives that you can do firstly and one of my favorites that I’m currently kind of really interested in is concept maps and I’ve got an example here a concept map is a link between different ideas now this one is it’ll be backwards because it’s kind of mirrored through my computer camera doesn’t matter about reading the text it can be are the ideas that the authors present so you could do some analytical reading about the different structure and things like that and then how they relate together a concept map these different ideas or themes and how they relate together you could have a concept map that was much more based on your own ideas so it could be what am I taking from this and it could be even ideas that are from your study maybe not in the author’s own words but it’s something you’re taking from that text so it’s a link between ideas so it’s an illustration of ideas and what links them you see this is quite simple now what I would do is I would read a paper and at the end of it I’ll give myself one sheet of a4 and I would that’s my limit and I write up the concept map on that I don’t write it as I go along and read the paper and I write it at the end it also means I’m a bit quicker cuz I read the paper in one go so I kind of wit flow with the authors rather than breaking up excuse me by writing different notes at different times I’m reading the paper I’m in the flow then I write at my concept map this is about notes of organize ideas and how they relate to each other you could also write lists I don’t do this but I know some people have so you could make lists of the key ideas lists of the key references or areas of literature lists of concepts lists of findings or analytical themes and lists of implications that could be a very easy way to come back and you can be looking at your notes and going okay what did this person say about the literature Britain there you go you’ve got it very accessible and very easy you might in some lists add some things so if it’s concepts you might add a sentence or two about a definition what additional information if any might you want to put onto a key point you could also do and this is hard and in one sentence summary this is you read an article and you give yourself one sentence to write down what you’ve done now this may not be the only note you take but it’s a really good thing to do along with some of these other things I often put a one sentence summary on the top of the concept maps I do this forces you to think what is the most important thing I took from this not what did that also want to say what is the most important thing I’ve taken from this study there’s a five sentence versions without which I call the five sentence synopsis and you can choose which kind of five sentences you might want to work with so it could be what’s the context that aims their methods and findings and conclusions that’ll be quite a standard one and you’d also might want to add what would it mean for me you could be something about who are the authors while theory did they use what were the key concepts what were the key messages what do I need to follow up on five completely different sentences there from the first look you could choose which five sentences are going to be best for me in summarizing this given the purposes I’ve been looking for you might have another approach is a limited number of key quotes so this is about directly taking phrases and often on a concept map I’ll put a page number or even write out a phrase if it’s a really really juicy quote that’s beautifully articulated it expresses what I want to say no I’d say again don’t go crazy highlighting your copy and pasting the fact is that quotes already been written by somebody else so you do generally need to write to the game you might set yourself a limit maybe two or five what are the two best lines or sentences from this paper and why do I choose them and why are they good and this is starting to use note-taking to force you to think to really do some hard thinking note-taking shouldn’t be a passive activity just so oh yeah okay I’ve read this up should write it down it’s an active one where you shape the interaction between you and the knowledge that you’re engaging with in the literature I might add at this point though there’s another form of reading that you could engagement which might be called critical reading this is different from analytic reading that I mentioned before it’s about the organization’s or ideas critical reading is about kind of judgment and saying well what it aspects of this are good and what are less good and of course your notes may reflect that you may make some five sentences on what the three key strengths and the two limitations or the two flaws that you found in that study so you may be making notes that are critically oriented like that a famous way of note-taking is what might be called an annotated bibliography or this might happen after you’ve made some notes and this I would say is probably a slightly more elaborate or systematic way of the five sentence summary it doesn’t necessarily have five components to it you might have a number of heading some of which you use all the time and some of which you don’t I use ones like why do I read this what did I find out one of the key arguments what were the methods used are they saying that there’s more research needed what was the design all sorts of things like that annotated bibliographies you can google that and you’ll see lots of examples I’ve done an example of an annotated bibliography and my own blog when you look it up about the works by Theodore chatsky this is not an exhaustive list of ways to make notes on literature I’m sure there are lots more out there I’m early in my experience of trying to find out ways to make my note-taking more interesting and more effective and by effective I mean note-taking that forces you to think I’ve said it before and I’ll say it again and note-taking that serves me well when I come back to my notes coming back to notes to the three pages long I’ve got an EndNote library full of those like that are not that useful to me am I we were looking back at the original and that’s probably better anyway if I’m going to cite something I’m always going to go and check in the original I don’t take it amount of context but my concept maps they really helped me figure out oh I remember that paper here are the ideas and yes I do want to cite something directly from this so I go to the original so concept maps lists one sentence summaries five sentence summaries key quotes really key quotes selectively highlighting or underlining yes margin notes in the margins and things like that my concept Maps you can see like this they’re done by hand because I find it quickest but I do scan them and put them as a PDF in my EndNote library so that I can find them again pretty easily online so although they’re not searchable in terms of the words in there I can look through them online without having to come back to my big bookshelf here now I promise I’ll talk about three things and I’m true to my promises so what I’m going to talk about now is prewriting and just to prove that these are not just purely my ideas here are the resources that I’m going to refer to from that I got from the UTS library but I think about these things now one of the things I think is really important is the idea that you warm up for writing if you’re going to go and run a marathon you warm up and you practice four things and I think one of the things that makes writing difficult is the fact that we kind of we go from nothing to starting to write what we hope is going to be the final text or something close to it there are all sorts of writing that come in between having read and make notes or thought about something and the writing and these in-between things often change your ideas so you write yourself into new understandings of course your ideas change as you actually go writing full texts one of the things I find most exciting and releasing if you like is free writing that’s just put all my books away often I switch my computer off from my email off don’t have any literature there I just write that could be I’ve read something I’m just going to write what I’ve remembered from it or what I took from it it could be I’ve read 50 things over the last week what I’ve been taking from it or it could be here’s a draft of a chapter or an idea for an abstract of a paper you’ll be amazed what you know what you in fact it’s often the best writing when I’ve had problems with voice beep my supervisors in the passage to say Oh Nick I think this needs more voice it’s a very common problem that many students have well if you’re free writing you don’t have anybody else whose voice is interfering with you it’s just you you don’t have to worry about citations references and quotes and years and authors and all that you just write what you think of what you want to say and you just stop and you stop there is no editing of free writing you just go and go until oh no it’s half a page until you run out of ideas it’s fine free writing is just about getting ideas out there on the page you don’t have to regulate it or evaluate it as you write along there is no bad free writing just as making notes can be involved listening and things like that I think making lists is really useful for thinking about writing often I’ve listed the number of things I want to say and if it’s for a paper usually that’s way too many and you have to cut them down and then you can think about how can I organize those now what you could do is a warm-up I’ve seen some people try this is do something completely unrelated to your research to get your brain working so you might for example write a shopping list and then think how can I organize these well I can organize the items by which shop they’re going to come from how expensive they might be whether they’re to be eaten or not to be eaten or whether they’re large or small items and that will just very quickly get you going you could do the same with a whole number of things if you’re writing a paper what are the ideas who are the people I want to refer to how can I group those together doing that for example for a lit review could be really useful because you end up don’t end up with a paragraph equals person or paragraph equals paper structure but rather you group them together so listing and outlines is really useful brainstorming is that presumably familiar to many of you but it’s a very good way I think of starting writing or warming up for writing brainstorming is a kind of a very unstructured just free flow of ideas and it may be through a brainstorm that you create a list so who knows what these things might come in various orders blank piece of paper and you just dump everything you can think about an issue there’s no judgement no prioritizing no valuing anything in this moment it’s just everything you can do that without any things around do it first and then you can add to it and then after that you can start doing some organizing and critiquing and quite often you can tone a brainstorm into a concept map you can group things together you can dismiss some things as less important or less relevant and so a brainstorm can become a concept map or a mind map that’s me sorry about that so my mapping writing warm-up writing all of these things I think counters warm-up writing or planning writing as well you could I was told when I was doing my exams in undergraduate alright sit on your hands first sitting on my hands and then plan before you write and planning can be outlines you can write your headings and your subheadings I’ll often write the headings subheadings and in the first sentence of each paragraph I said before if things are written well you can read the first sentence of each paragraph and get a sense of the ideas and how the paper flows writing the first census with a paragraph first what’s this paragraph about and then you can move them around to think well okay is there something I need between here and here okay that’s probably a new paragraph that you need then this is two paragraphs saying essentially the same thing in which case if you’re like me and you usually write more than is good then delete one of them so writing like that outlines headings you can also do little bits of warm-up writing as a summary so I’m gonna write a paper about this this is why it’s important this is why the readers of this journal will be interested in it so a huge number of things I’ve covered here very very quickly for those of you who are going to be in the workshop with me or turbocharging workshop we’re going to spend a day you’re going to get chance to try out heaps of these things you’re going to be reading things in ways you’ve never read before can be making new kinds of notes and seeing how it goes and you’ll be going to doing some writing under extreme time pressures it’s going to be really really fun but it’s a very safe environment for you to try things out it doesn’t matter if it all goes wrong point is that you get to learn and try out new things I’m really happy for people to add to this video by adding comments underneath if you’ve got other suggestions maybe you think I’m a lazy academic who cheats all the time fine I’m not saying read everything really really quickly and cheat at the reading or take shortcuts what I am saying is read smartly taking notes smartly after making fewer notes he’ll be better notes and we make a result of better thinking and we bet it more useful to you afterwards and when you write if you like me if I’d writing hard do some warm-up writing prewriting mind maps brainstorms lists and outlines first sentences of each paragraph so I hope you found this useful once again I’d like to acknowledge the Terry Royce on the University of Technology Sydney graduate research school they really helped me organize my thoughts and get some of these resources together for those of you who are joining me in the turbocharged workshop I hope to see you soon and for those of you who’ve just been watching this student from another University I hope this is useful and if you’d like to come and do a workshop with getting in touch with me take a

Sample essay 1 with admissions feedback

what I really appreciated about this essay is that the student really took the time to paint a very vivid picture about her experience in this accident and what she learned from it this entire time and and the lesson learned from this experience she clearly went through a traumatic experience having an accident and going through an accident and then was able to turn it around into a positive really explain to us how she was able to conquer her fear and then become an EMT which is something that we as admission officers like to see that resilience that ability to take something that could be a very disturbing moment and really apply it and learn from it in a way that benefits other people and it benefits themselves in the long run which i think is those are all great things the one area that I thought would have been a little bit helpful for us as admission officers the essay she spent a lot of time really again painting that picture setting the scene and I think some students one of the sort of the things that we see a lot is students spend a lot of that time in that as a valuable space on that essay really setting that scene and they don’t really capitalize the moments that they have to explain what they learned we really only get that in the last — I would say the last paragraph of this essay in this idea of I conquered my fear I was able to revisit something that was painful for me and now I’m an EMT and I’m able to help other people going through similar experiences and it would have been nice to hear that a little bit earlier on in this essay she spent practically four paragraphs really sort of going through every detail of both the accident itself and then becoming an EMT and it sometimes can be again you only have so many words on this essay to really put yourself out there and so I would have spent a little bit more time really getting to the point a little earlier on I sort of last last takeaway as I read this essay is I think it’s beautifully written really vivid imagery which I love to see but I would spend a little bit more time really thinking about you know what do I want the admission office and the admission officers to learn about myself through this essay beyond being able to conquer her fear how is that applicable to her as a college student on our campus perhaps it means that she might want to pursue pre-med or the sciences as a possible academic journey or it says something about her commitment to civic duty and the community and spending a little bit more time going back to this idea of how is this impactful on the student itself and what do we learn about the student spending a little bit more time allowing us to get to know getting to know her in a more intimate way I think would serve her really well in this essay